Harford County Sheriff's Office

With courage, honor, and integrity, we protect the rights of all citizens


Deputies in the Community

Congratulations Graduates of ELC Class 28

JANUARY 17, 2018

Please join us as we welcome these Correctional Deputies to the HCSO family.

Final Command Inspection

JANUARY 12, 2018

Yesterday was the final command inspection for ELC28 before their graduation next week. Sheriff Gahler was on hand to offer some words to these Corrections recruits. We wish these men the best of luck as they begin their careers.

Wreaths Across America

DECEMBER 18, 2017

This Saturday, our deputies honored our fallen heroes by participating in Wreaths Across America, at Dulaney Valley Memorial Gardens. As you enter this holiday season, please remember those who sacrificed their lives in service of others.

Active Shooter Seminar

DECEMBER 18, 2017

Today, the Harford County Sheriff's Office presented an Active Shooter Seminar, in partnership with Mountain Christian Church. The seminar focused on the background and history of active shooter incidents, case studies, and how to respond if you find yourself confronted by this life or death situation. Participants learned the 3 key elements to survival...Run, Hide, Fight.

If you missed today's presentation, it will be rebroadcast on Saturday, January 27th from 8 am to 12 pm in the New Life Center at Mountain Christian Church. Deputies will be on hand to answer any questions you may have.

Shop With A Cop

DECEMBER 9, 2017

Honored to be a part of today’s Shop with a Cop!


DECEMBER 1, 2017

Thank you to NVS Merle Norman in Bel Air! They provided free haircuts to deputies last week! We continue to be inspired by the generosity of the community. I think Sheriff Gahler looks a little scared! No worries, Sir...just a little off the top!

Maryland Remembers

DECEMBER 1, 2017

Deputies attended the 14th annual Maryland Remembers ceremony today, in Annapolis. Each year the Maryland Department of Transportation Motor Vehicle Administration and MADD organize this event to honor the lives of the hundreds of Maryland lives lost due to impaired drivers and raise critical awareness of the issue.

Memorial Stone

NOVEMBER 28, 2017

This morning a beautiful memorial stone was unveiled at the Boulevard at Box Hill. The stone, donated by Bob Ward Properties honors the life and service of Senior Deputy Patrick Dailey and Deputy First Class Mark Logsdon.

During the ceremony, Bob Ward remarked, “As a family and as a company we know it’s impossible to do anything that would approach making up for such a loss, but we had to do something, and we pray that the memorial that is about to be unveiled will serve to honor Deputies Daily and Logsdon and the sacrifice they’ve made. God Bless these brave men and all who serve to protect us and our way of life."

Following the unveiling, Sheriff Gahler offered words of thanks, saying, “Since the first moments of that dreaded call on February 10, 2016 to today, the response of our Harford County Community has been exceptionally kind and generous. So many shared the pain of our loss, the pain of our families. From that pain came the love. Love in the form of prayers, flowers, cards, balloons, letters, food donations and monetary donations. And now, the love and support in the form of this memorial. A lasting tribute to Senior Deputy Patrick Dailey and Deputy First Class Mark Logsdon. We know we will never forget our heroes, but it is so wonderful knowing that our community and people such as Mr. Bob Ward and those of Ward Properties, have done so much to make sure everyone remembers our heroes and remembers their sacrifice.”

Today, we send our thoughts and prayers to Officer Sean Suiter, his family and his agency, and to the families of our own fallen heroes, Deputy Frank Bateman, Deputy First Class William Beebe, Deputy First Class Teresa Testerman, Corporal Charles Licato, Sergeant Ian Loughran, Senior Deputy Patrick Dailey and Deputy First Class Mark Logsdon. Each of our heroes will forever be in our hearts.

Holiday Donations

NOVEMBER 18, 2017

Thank You Shop Rite! The Shop Rites of Forest Hill and the Festival of Bel Air donated turkeys and hams, from customers whose points qualified them to receive, and presented them to the HCSO Christmas Drive. This Drive is in its 35th year and will provide over 120 Harford County needy families with toys and food. Donation boxes are at each store and at both precincts.

HCSO Husky Justice Society

NOVEMBER 18, 2017

Earlier this week, the HCSO Husky Justice Society (Patterson Mill HS) took a tour of the Emergency Operations Center. Accompanied by SRO/Sr. Deputy Kovacs, the students learned about the vital role dispatchers play in public safety and the career opportunities available to them.

Peace Office of the Year

NOVEMBER 6, 2017

Congratulations Sgt. Eric Gonzalez! Sgt. Gonzalez was named Peace Officer of the Year by our local American Legion Posts! Well deserved!

Lunchtime Treat

OCTOBER 27, 2017

We love our community! Thank you Mr. and Mrs. Everett Smith and their granddaughter Willow! Today they stopped by the Northern Precinct and provided lunch for the deputies! The kindness of our community is one of the highlights of our job!

Behind the Badge

OCTOBER 13, 2017

Have you caught the new episode of Behind the Badge? It features Women in Corrections, our Marine Unit, the Substance Abuse Unit at the HCDC, the eviction process...and much more!

Instructor of the Year

OCTOBER 13, 2017

Congratulations! Yesterday, at a ceremony held at the Maryland Police & Correctional Training Commission, Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services, two Harford County Sheriff's Office Deputies were presented recognitions as Instructor of the Year!

Instructor of the Year (Non-Academy)
Lieutenant Yvonne Chester

Yvonne continues to make training a priority and is always willing to contribute to the educational needs of the agency. She has been a mainstay during the 2017 in-service cycle teaching classes to both law enforcement and corrections deputies. Additionally, she was the driving force behind the training of our newly fielded Mobile Transport Unit personnel to help insure they were well versed in the safe and effective transportation and handling of prisoners. She is living proof that leaders train and trainers lead.

Instructor of the Year (Academy):
Corporal Brad Ghaner

Brad serves at our agency’s Fitness Team Leader and continues to be the operational driving force behind our Entrance Level Fitness Program for both the law enforcement and corrections classifications. His aggressive, forward thinking leadership in this arena continues to be the ingredient that makes the difference between stagnation and innovation. He serves as an excellent example of dedication and professionalism to our recruits, his team, and the agency as a whole.

Thanks Taylor!

OCTOBER 6, 2017

This really warms our hearts. Today, Taylor Malloy stopped by Northern Precinct at roll call to give deputies a police bear that sings the "Bad Boys" theme. She also brought bracelets that say "Thank you for keeping me safe!! Love, Taylor." This truly remarkable young woman has visited us before to provide goodies. It is amazing how mature she is at such a young age! Thank you Taylor, you are an inspiration!

Bag Out Hunger

SEPTEMBER 20, 2017

Today, members of the Harford County Sheriff's Office were at Klein's Shoprite in Bel Air and at the Festival to help "Bag Out Hunger." Thank you to everyone who shopped and donated!

Jurassic Golf

SEPTEMBER 16, 2017

The Sheriff was honored to join tonight's panel discussion at Bel Air High School on opioid abuse. Sheriff Gahler joined former Surgeon General Dr. Vivek Murthy, Lt. Gov. Boyd Rutherford, County Executive Barry Glassman, and Superintendent Barbara Canavan. Tonight was also the first public event to feature the HOPE House. The Sheriff introduced the Lt. Gov, Dr. Murthy and the County Executive to the educational tool.

Panel Discussion on Opioid Abuse

SEPTEMBER 14, 2017

The Sheriff was honored to join tonight's panel discussion at Bel Air High School on opioid abuse. Sheriff Gahler joined former Surgeon General Dr. Vivek Murthy, Lt. Gov. Boyd Rutherford, County Executive Barry Glassman, and Superintendent Barbara Canavan. Tonight was also the first public event to feature the HOPE House. The Sheriff introduced the Lt. Gov, Dr. Murthy and the County Executive to the educational tool.

First Day of School


This morning, Commanders from the HCSO visited local schools to welcome students to the First Day of School! Sheriff Gahler visited Roye Williams Elementary School with Superintendent Barbara Canavan. Hope everyone has a great first day!

HCSO Kiss A Pig Team

AUGUST 24, 2017

Today Sheriff Gahler was proud to present the Boys & Girls Clubs of Harford County with a check on behalf of the entire HCSO Kiss a Pig team. With the generous support of our community and the hard work of the entire Kiss a Pig team, we were able to be the top fundraiser for this year's Kiss a Pig! Thank you Harford County!

Ripken Baseball Camp

AUGUST 16, 2017

This week, deputies with the Harford County Sheriff's Office took part in the annual Ripken Baseball Camp. Our deputies were able to interact with student athletes from around the country, and loved every minute of it!

Badges for Baseball

AUGUST 10, 2017

It was our final Badges for Baseball session until next summer! Today, 46 of our friends from the Boys and Girls Club and Village of Lakeview went to the Ironbird's game. Can't wait for next year!

Congratulations Graduates!

AUGUST 4, 2017

Congratulations to the graduates of our Youth Academy class 08-17. We hope you had a great time!

Thank You Tyler

AUGUST 4, 2017

This young man is one impressive 9-year-old. Tyler Carach is on a mission to thank every law enforcement officer in the county by bringing them donuts! Today he stopped by Southern Precinct where we hosted representatives from 10 agencies! Thank you to Aberdeen Police Department, Havre de Grace Police Department, Bel Air Police Department, Maryland State Police, Maryland Transportation Authority (MDTA) Police, Aberdeen Proving Ground Police, Official Baltimore County Police & Fire, Cecil County Sheriff's Office, Harford County Public Schools, and Immigration And Customs Enforcement (ICE) for helping us welcome Tyler!

Farm Fair

JULY 24, 2017

The Farm Fair starts today! Stop by our Community Policing trailer to chat with our deputies. We hope to see you out there!

New Cadet

JULY 13, 2017

Sheriff Gahler introduces Tyler Dailey, son of Senior Deputy Patrick Dailey (E.O.W. 02/10/16), as the first cadet hired by the Harford County Sheriff's Office.

Youth Academy Graduation

JUNE 30, 2017

It was all smiles as the first Youth Academy of the summer graduated today! Great Job! Thank you to Harford Glen, Klein's Shoprite and Regal Cinemas Bel Air Cinema 14 for their continued support to make this program possible!

Champions for Children and Youth Award

JUNE 23, 2017

Congratulations to Sgt. Kevin Taylor and all of the Champions for Children and Youth Award recipients. Sgt. Taylor was nominated for his work with HCSO youth programs including mentoring in Boys2Men after school program, Hoops for Heart, and the Christmas Drive, to name a few. Sgt. Taylor recently retired from the HCSO as the supervisor in the Community Services Division.

Sheriff's Salute

JUNE 23, 2017

On Wednesday evening, Sheriff Gahler, Colonel Bodway and Warden Capasso presented Susan Kelly with a Sheriff's Salute, in recognition of her dedication to the citizens of Harford County. We wish Susan well, as she retires from the Harford County Health Department.

Safety Day

JUNE 9, 2017

Last Saturday, deputies spent time with the Windsor Valley Community at their Safety Day. Deputies played games with children, and shared safety tips with residents!

New Sheriff in Town

JUNE 7, 2017

There was a new Sheriff in town today. Aubrey Schwartz won the job during a silent auction in April to benefit the The Arc Northern Chesapeake Region. With Aubrey, came a new Colonel, her son Ocean. Together they visited Headquarters, the Southern Precinct and the Detention Center with "former" Sheriff Gahler. Colonel Ocean had a message for everybody during his day...

Torch Run for Special Olympics

JUNE 6, 2017

And they're off! The Torch Run for Special Olympics just stepped off in Havre de Grace. If you see our runners today, show them some encouragement!

Dangers of Heroin and Fentanyl

MAY 26, 2017

Spreading the word. Today Corporal Kevin Phillips, from the Harford County Sheriff's Office Southern Precinct, spoke to the media about the dangers of heroin and fentanyl, and his personal experience. Last week, Corporal Phillips responded to an opioid overdose as he had many times and was this time exposed to heroin and fentanyl. Exhibiting signs of exposure, Harford County medics administered Narcan on Corporal Phillips reversing the effects of heroin and fentanyl. Thanks to the quick actions of Medics Corporal Phillips was able to return to work the next day. To hear more of his story, check out the Aegis or watch your local news tonight.

East Coast Animal Control Training Academy Graduates

MAY 25, 2017

It must have been "ruff", but they did it! Congratulations to the two Harford County Sheriff’s Office Animal Control Officers who graduated from the East Coast Animal Control Training Academy! With just two weeks of interactive training, these graduates have all the necessary information they need to build their careers for Animal Control.

23rd Citizen's Police Academy Graduation

MAY 25, 2017

Congratulations to the members of the 23rd Citizens' Police Academy who graduated last night! We hope you enjoyed the program as much as we enjoyed having you!

Substance & Behavioral Health Unit

MAY 23, 2017

Today, Sheriff Jeffrey Gahler recognized three more inmates who successfully completed a 12-week program as part of the Substance & Behavioral Health Unit at the Harford County Detention Center, adding to the six who already graduated the program a couple months ago. This program was implemented after the Sheriff recognized the volume of people being processed into the detention center who struggle with substance abuse and the heroin epidemic currently paralyzing our communities. Congratulations to the inmates who successfully completed the program! Hopefully this was a strong, positive step towards a sober, crime-free, life.

Police Unity Tour

MAY 11, 2017

We were honored the Police Unity Tour chose the Harford County Sheriff's Office Southern Precinct again this year for a wreath laying. Following their visit, we held the first fallen hero memorial ceremony, remembering the seven Harford County Sheriff's Office deputies who died in the line of duty. Thank you to those who came out to support us during this new annual event!

23rd Annual Blue Mass

MAY 4, 2017

On Tuesday, Sheriff Gahler and Colonel Bodway joined with hundreds of first responders from around the country at St. Patrick's to attend the 23rd Annual Blue Mass, in Washington DC. This Mass is held each year, at the beginning of National Police Week, to pray for those in law enforcement and fire safety, remember those who have fallen, and support those who serve.

Drug Take Back

APRIL 29, 2017

We have our boxes ready to fill up with your unused and unwanted medications, today during Drug Take Back. We are at 220 South Main Street, in Bel Air until 2 pm. Stop over and see us! Can't make it today? There are collection boxes at each precinct and Headquarters available to you 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.

Public Safety Award

APRIL 27, 2017

Last Friday, the Bel Air Moose Lodge honored Senior Deputy Khalid Mitchell with a Public Safety Award. Sr. Dep. Mitchell has been a School Resource Officer for nearly 16 years! He is currently assigned to Joppatowne High School. His dedication to the youth of our community is a testament to his character and we are very proud to call him one of our own!

Cherish the Child Symposium

APRIL 21, 2017

Today deputies from the Harford County Sheriff's Office and Child Advocacy Center participated in Cherish the Child Symposium at Mountain Christian Church. They were honored to meet the keynote speaker, John Walsh. Just before Mr. Walsh spoke, Colonel Bodway honored the legend with a Sheriff's Salute on behalf of Sheriff Gahler.

Charity Soccer Event

APRIL 13, 2017

Last Saturday, Deputies with the Harford County Sheriff's Office volunteered for a charity soccer event in Cecil County that raised $5,000 for the Janet Hardy Memorial Scholarship Fund. The scholarship raises money in honor of Janet Hardy, who was killed in 2003 by a drunk driver, just one week shy of her 14th birthday. Our team took on, and beat, a team from North East High School.

For more information on how to donate, visit http://janet-hardy.memory-of.com/


APRIL 13, 2017

Sheriff Gahler was honored to attend today's graduation of the first Harford County Sheriff's Office Correctional Deputies to complete the Immigration and Customs Enforcement's 287G Training Program in Charleston, South Carolina. Sheriff Gahler was invited to present each of our members with their official credentials during the graduation program. This program is just one more way we are to keep criminals out of our communities! Congratulations to the graduates!

Deputies of the Year

APRIL 11, 2017

Tonight we honored all members of the Harford County Sheriff's Office who went above and beyond during 2016 in our annual awards ceremony. In this picture are our Deputies of the Year, DFC Stavros Kalambihis (Law Enforcement), Sgt Eric Gonzalez (Non-Commissioned Officer), and Senior Deputy Jennifer Huey (Correctional). Congratulations to everyone!

Guest Instructor

APRIL 8, 2017

Harford County Sheriff's Office's Chief Deputy, Colonel Steve Bodway, was invited to be a guest instructor this week in a course for supervisory police officers and his classes covered topics related to disciplinary matters and ethical policing. The course, hosted by the Pueblo Police Department working with the Institute for Law Enforcement Administration - ILEA was attended by police officers from across the state of Colorado. The outstanding reputation of the Colonel and the men and women of our Sheriff's Office continues to add to the constant development of tomorrow's police leaders, here and across the United States.

April is National Child Abuse Prevention Month

APRIL 3, 2017

Sheriff Gahler was honored to speak at tonight's awareness vigil hosted by CASA of Harford County. Following the vigil, Sheriff Gahler joined others and planted a pinwheel garden on Main Street that stands as a silent reminder of the children suffering from abuse in our community. Take a few minutes to learn how the HCSO works to end child abuse. http://www.harfordcac.org/

New Memorial

MARCH 9, 2017

Sheriff Gahler joined family members of our seven fallen heroes and members of the Harford County Sheriff’s Office at our Training Academy yesterday to unveil a new memorial dedicated to the memory of our heroes. The memorial will stand as a constant reminder to our recruits, and all who enter the academy, to honor the sacrifice of all who came before and of the importance of the job they are destined to do and lives they will be sworn to protect.

Substance and Behavioral Health

MARCH 8, 2017

On Monday, Sheriff Jeffrey Gahler recognized the first six inmates to successfully complete a new 10-week Substance & Behavioral Health Unit at the Harford County Detention Center.

Recognizing the volume of people being processed into the detention center who struggle with substance abuse and the heroin epidemic currently paralyzing our communities, Sheriff Gahler conducted extensive research and toured several successful detention center based recovery programs to establish the first unit of its kind to address addiction at the HCDC.

Deputy in Training

MARCH 5, 2017

Kylie just celebrated her birthday! The little deputy in training asked her friends to bring donations to make goodie bags for our deputies, instead of giving her presents. Thank you, Kylie. Caring people like you are one of the reasons we work so hard to keep our communities safe! Happy Birthday!

Eagle Scout Project

MARCH 4, 2017

We were honored when Garrett Humphries, Troop 810 from St. Francis de Sales, Abingdon proposed to honor our Harford County Sheriff's Office Fallen Deputies with his Eagle Project. He worked hard today to make his vision a reality! The results are beautiful. Thank you, Garrett. Congratulations on your accomplishment!

Training Academy

FEBRUARY 24, 2017

Today, Sheriff Adams from the Cecil County Sheriff's Office joined Sheriff Gahler at the Training Academy to talk with the recruits. This class doesn't just include HCSO recruits, but also some from CCSO, and the Elkton Police Department.

Benevolent Fund Donation

FEBRUARY 1, 2017

Today, we were humbled to receive a donation from the local Mt. Ararat Lodge for the Benevolent Fund. Thank you again for being such a wonderful, caring and giving community! #HarfordStrong

HB25 - Testimony before the House Judiciary

JANUARY 31, 2017

Sheriff Gahler and Cecil County Sheriff Adams were in Annapolis today to hear the proceedings for HB 25. Sheriff Gahler was proud to lend his voice to support legislation that would categorize violence targeted towards Law Enforcement as a hate crime. The following is the testimony Sheriff Gahler prepared and offered in support of the legislation:

Testimony before the House Judiciary
January 31, 2017

Good afternoon, I am Jeff Gahler, Sheriff for Harford County Maryland, here today representing my agency as well as speaking on behalf of the Maryland Chief’s of Police and Maryland Sheriff’s Associations.

In 2016, 140 Law Enforcement Officers were killed in the line of duty. That number was up 10% from the previous year. Of the 140 who lost their lives, it is suspected that over 20 were specifically targeted for one reason only; they wore the uniform of a law enforcement officer; men and women who are sworn to protect and serve our communities and our families.

Part of that number of officers killed last year, include three from officers from Maryland. Two deputies, Senior Deputy Patrick Dailey and Deputy First Class Mark Logsdon, from my own agency, who were targeted because of their uniforms. The other officer lost is Police Officer Jacai Colson of the Prince Georges County Police Department. Officer Colson’s life was lost during an incident that involved two brothers, apparently willingly and knowingly, assisting another brother as he targeted a police station and police officers.

During DFC Logsdon’s funeral I spoke to our HCSO family and told them they cannot “what if” their actions that day as there was only one person in control of the way that tragic day would unfold, but looking at this legislation and legislation that provides more protections and enhanced penalties for those who may target law enforcement officers, I cannot help but wonder “what if.” What if the individual who killed my deputies would have paused for even the slightest moment because there is support of our men and women in uniform? Might Pat Dailey have had a chance to defend himself or halt the attack? Might that day have ended so very much differently? What if one of the three brothers involved in the event that cost Officer Colson his life had just hesitated and allowed sanity to prevail? Might that day have ended differently for the family of the Prince Georges County Police Department?

In May of 2016, the State of Louisiana passed legislation giving hate-crime protections to Law Enforcement Officers and First Responders, becoming the first state in the nation to do so. This bipartisan effort, overwhelmingly supported by Democrats and Republicans, was signed into law by the Democrat Governor of Louisiana John Bel Edwards.

It is now our time of opportunity to do the same. As we all agree any police misconduct is unacceptable and wrong, these incidents represent a very small percentage of all police/citizen contacts. The majority of men and women serving as police officers are out there 24/7, weekends, holidays, in good weather and bad, doing a great job with the only goal of protecting each of us. This is an opportunity for our State to show those officers that we appreciate them and that their safety and their lives matter.

These criminals who knowingly target police officers, target them not because who the person is, but because of what the person is. This is the purpose for Hate Crime legislation, to protect individuals from being targeted based solely on “what the person is”. Law enforcement officers should be treated no different than any other class of citizens already protected.

This legislation will give protections to our police officers and deputies and send a message to anyone that if you knowingly set out to cause bodily harm to a law enforcement officer, you will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law. I respectfully ask the members of the House Judiciary Committee to issue a favorable report on HB 19 and HB 25. #BlueLivesMatter

Polar Bear Plunge - Explorer Post 6600

JANUARY 28, 2017

Sheriff Gahler is extremely proud of Explorer Post 6600. Today, they had 10 Explorers participate in the annual Polar Bear Plunge with their advisors. This year, through the generosity of the communities they quadrupled the donation over last year raising $2000.

The water was COLD but it was for a great cause for Special Olympics, which helps to support programs in Harford County, such as the Special Olympics Unified Basketball program.

Instructor of the Year

JANUARY 28, 2017

On Thursday, Lt. Marc Junkerman was recognized as the Maryland CIT (Crisis Intervention Team) Instructor of the year! Way to go LT!

Remembrance Ceremony

JANUARY 25, 2017

It is a moment frozen in the history of Harford County…February 10, 2016. It is difficult to believe that we are about to pass the one year point when our community lost Sr. Deputy Patrick Dailey and DFC Mark Logsdon. To honor their life and sacrifice, Sheriff Gahler and the men and women of the Harford County Sheriff’s Office will be standing in solidarity at the memorial at the Boulevard at Box Hill, for a brief Remembrance Ceremony, at 11:45 am on that day. We ask that the entire community, wherever you may be, on February 10, 2017, to pause in a moment of silence at 12 noon, as we stop and reflect on the lives that were lost and the lives that were saved during that fateful day.

Even off duty, Deputies still save Lives!

JANUARY 21, 2017

On 1-19-17 DFC VanHelten, who is assigned to the Harford County Sheriff’s Office Southern Precinct, was working off duty in Meadowood when he heard a fire alarm sounding. DFC VanHelten drove around until he could locate the residence from which the alarm was sounding. He was able to determine that a residence on Crownwood Ct was filling with smoke. Acting quickly, DFC VanHelten called out over the radio that he needed the fire department and relayed critical information that he could see pots on the stove, with burning food, producing a lot of smoke. He also observed a female was passed out on the floor, unresponsive. DFC VanHelten forced entry into the residence to rescue the unconscious female and remove her from danger. DFC VanHelten's persistence to find the fire alarm helped to save the life of the unconscious female who was in close proximity to the stove.

Great job DFC VanHelten! The citizens of Harford County are fortunate to have you serving the community.

Gift From Wegmans

JANUARY 5, 2017

Wegmans in Abingdon wanted to do something meaningful for the Harford County Sheriff's Office. While they had already provided countless meals to deputies in the days after Feb 10, they wanted to partner with us in a way that would truly make an impact. On January 4, 2017 they presented Command Staff with tourniquets and holders for the deputies to carry on their duty belts. Thank you for a gift that could save a life. We were honored to have Bob O'Connor, Store Manger; Jodi Snyder, Asset Protection Manager; and Wardell Roberts, Assistant Asset Protection Manager join us for the presentation.